2018 – The Year of the EV in Canada

It’s true. Canada is lagging other developed nations in adoption of EVs. Just read the report, Stuck in Neutral, by Clean Energy Canada. We are several times less in adoption even compared to USA with Trump at the helm. We should be embarrassed.

The government of Canada will release a plan to go electric in 2018, something that spells out a strategy for decades ahead. I hope it will come in time for my purchase of a bright shiny RED Solo EV, if it’s a retail rebate, a rebate on the cost of installing a charging station or a rebate on the cost of installing solar panels. I’m going to do all three in 2018/2019 if all goes according to plan and I live that long. Subsidies should not be necessary. I’ve done the maths and electricity will revolutionize travel in the 21st century as well as ICEs did in the 20th with or without subsidies. It’s just that a little push helps and I can use my savings to plant more trees… Just the “buzz” about subsidies will get more people thinking of going electrically.

I think the Solo EV is poised to do well in 2018, catching this wave. It has a very low purchase price already and a subsidy will make it stellar. It has the highest range per kWh of all the well known EVs just because of its size and it carries one passenger from A to B in style with the stereo blasting oldies or whatever… and IT’S MADE IN CANADA!!! IT’S MADE IN CANADA!!! IT’S MADE IN CANADA!!! Repeating things three times helps Trump. Maybe it will help adoption of EVs. 😉

Quoting the report:
“While the spread of infrastructure is helping transform so-called “range anxiety” into range confidence, consumer education helps too. Studies have shown that electric cars available in Canada meet 90% of Canadians’ daily driving needs. According to Transport Canada, the average Canadian drives just 50 kilometres a day, a distance
easily covered by EVs.

It’s no wonder a recent study concluded it’s five times more difficult to purchase an electric car in Canada than in the U.S.

Federal, provincial and territorial governments are working to develop a national Zero-Emissions Vehicle Strategy. It’s a critical opportunity to put Canada in the EV game. To succeed, it will need to accomplish four things:
Define success

Make it easier for Canadians to choose electric

Make it easier for Canadians to plug in

Maximize clean-growth opportunities”

Amen! I’ve always been a little out of fashion but 2018 looks like I will catch the EV-wave in Canada.

About Robert Pogson

I am a retired teacher in Canada. I taught in the subject areas where I have worked for almost forty years: maths, physics, chemistry and computers. I love hunting, fishing, picking berries and mushrooms, too.
This entry was posted in politics, technology and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

35 Responses to 2018 – The Year of the EV in Canada

  1. oiaohm says:

    In the meanwhile, my Windows Phone, which is “dead”, just got updated with a fix to these two unpleasant issues.
    Deaf Spy did it really. Did not read about Qualcomm arm chips not being effected. So there was no reason to do a update for either of the faults in any of the recent Windows Phone devices that were still in support because they were Qualcomm chips without the problem.

    So what are you saying that Microsoft just crippled the performance of Windows Phone because
    1) their security personal are idiots.
    2) they wanted to intentionally cripple the performance of Windows Phone to stop people using it.

    That is your two options choose Deaf Spy.

    Or wait was the true answer they just reported that Windows Phone was not effected by the issue and patched nothing.

  2. Deaf Spy wrote, “where are you to praise the security of Linux and Android? Android was Linux, you were saying, weren’t you? Now, why is Windows more secure than Linux, once again?”

    No OS is perfect. TOOS has had wide open windows for decades for many millions of users. */Linux may be vulnerable to Intel’s crappy design but it’s not something any script kiddy can exploit and work-arounds are in the pipe. It’s interesting that this vulnerability and it’s solution are bringing the performance of some crude ARMed CPUs and whatever closer together.

    I think exploitation of this vulnerability on a modern system is difficult. On the one hand it requires time and effort by the exploiter so I don’t think every mom and pop computer/smartphone is at risk even if the CPU allows it. The worst effect is that every computer will now be ~30% slower as OSes try to dodge the vulnerability. The world should rely on Moore’s Law rather than fancy architecture to make things faster. Complexity kills even in hardware.

  3. Deaf Spy says:

    Yes a person with Android phone should check what arm CPU design their phone is based on because they might have a device effected by the cpu bugs.

    In the meanwhile, my Windows Phone, which is “dead”, just got updated with a fix to these two unpleasant issues.

    Hey, Robert, where are you to praise the security of Linux and Android? Android was Linux, you were saying, weren’t you? Now, why is Windows more secure than Linux, once again?

  4. oiaohm says:

    Android devices don’t use Arm cpu design that can be effected by the problem.
    Deaf Spy if you had quoted the right bit you might have a point.
    Really? What do they run on? Itaniums?
    A55 arm64 cpu design you might as well be Itanium the faults don’t effect it.

    A55 is the most common arm64 cpu design used in Android phones.

    Yes a person with Android phone should check what arm CPU design their phone is based on because they might have a device effected by the cpu bugs.

    https://developer.arm.com/support/security-update

    Arm provides this page because not everything arm is effected.

    Only affected cores are listed, all other Arm cores are NOT affected.
    This is also turning out the third party implementations of arm instructions sets have not been found with the issues even when they do out of order.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_ARMv8-A_cores
    On this list you are looking the Qualcomm, and Samsung that are used a lot in mobile phones but interesting enough neither is based on Arm silicon design and they don’t have the defects.

    Apple CPU are based directly on the ARM reference silicon designs of the effected types.

    Deaf Spy really if you had even just checked the wikipedia instead of believing a dated blog post it would be something.

    Interested enough if you had also checked the wikipedia on arm cpu design you you would have discovered that Qualcomm and Samsung don’t use arm reference silicon designs and they make up the majority of Android mobile phone silicon. Neither Qualcomm or Samsung silicon design teams made the spectre or meltdown bugs. It would have been a bigger problem if Samsung or Qualcomm had a chip design issue for Android than Arm having a silicon design problem.

    This is the reality Arm64 out of order there already exists silicon designs without the defects and in particular Arm markets those safe designs make up the majority.

    Deaf Spy the pages on the wikipedia I am using are correctly cited. You are a moron who refuses to check the wikipedia to make sure there are not extra information out there.

    About time you go stand under the lamp yourself maybe then you will have something fact to talk about instead of made up crap. Its really shocking how small of area in Android devices are effected by the recent cpu design fault issues.

  5. Deaf Spy says:

    Does pay to have done your reading and research

    Says Fifi and quotes Wikipedia.

    Because most Android devices don’t use Arm cpu design

    Really? What do they run on? Itaniums?

    To the lamppost, little girl!

  6. oiaohm says:

    Deaf Spy Goof ball you go the over view not the individual faults.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meltdown_(security_vulnerability)

    Ok information has been updated since my last post. Only 4 types of ARM64 processors are known to have the Meltdown fault. Anything else ARM does not require fix.

    No AMD chip has been found with the Meltdown fault.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectre_(security_vulnerability)

    Spectre is the one that effects AMD and only minorly.

    Deaf Spy both cpu bugs were released on the same day. So it important to who what one is being patched the Microsoft patch you point to fixes Meltdown not Spectre. Spectre is a lot more complex bug to fix as its hack is cpu dependent in a lot of ways.

    “These vulnerabilities” is as a group and Spectre covers 3 CVE numbers and Meltdown has a CVE number to its own. Out of all those CVE numbers AMD is only fully effected by 1 Spectre CVE with a second one of the Spectre CVE might be possible but due to design does not appear to be able to be made work.

    So if you are running AMD chip Spectre fixes are the most interesting to you.

    Deaf Spy you cannot research your way out of a wet paper bag. Google made a lot of claims in their blog posts that future study has turned out was over claiming. Intel fairly much all families chips bar 2 from 1995 to now that Intel has made is effected by all 4 CVE faults.

    That rushed patch of Microsoft only addresses a fault that is found in Intel and limited selection of ARM chips.

    A large portion of the current mid-range Android handsets use the Cortex-A53 or Cortex-A55 in an octa-core arrangement and are not affected by either the Meltdown or Specter vulnerability as they don’t do out-of-order execution. This includes devices with the Qualcomm Snapdragon 630, Snapdragon 626, Snapdragon 625, and all Snapdragon 4xx processors based on A53 or A55 cores.
    This is from the wikipedia backed by other sources.
    Since the bug affects all platforms, including ARM, the Android folks are especially threatened.

    So Deaf Spy are you going to admit that the above claim is mostly bogus. Because most Android devices don’t use Arm cpu design that can be effected by the problem. Interesting enough iphone is a different matter. You are talking less than 10 percent of the Android phones and tablets in existence effected but 100 percent of the iphones.

    So the bugs don’t effect all platforms. Does not effect all CPU types equally either.

    Does pay to have done your reading and research. Apparently Deaf Spy the goof is basing point of view on one out of date blog post. The faults have had way more in-depth research since then.

  7. Deaf Spy says:

    “These vulnerabilities affect many CPUs, including those from AMD, ARM, and Intel, as well as the devices and operating systems running on them.”
    https://security.googleblog.com/2018/01/todays-cpu-vulnerability-what-you-need.html

    See, Fifi? You even can’t use Google properly. Now, dear, grab these new fishnet stockings and run to the lamppost.

  8. oiaohm says:

    Really intel at this stage is still pretending that Meltdown is not their design problem. The fact there has no other CPU/MMU by other vendors with the fault says it Intel fault. So this gets very interesting right. PTI most likely has no require usage on anything other than Intel chips. Of course it suits Intel to pretend its everyone when the facts don’t back that case.

  9. oiaohm says:

    Deaf Spy thank you for the insulting post to tell everyone to shut up again. About time you take that lesson in yourself.

  10. Deaf Spy says:

    Fifi, did Santa bring you a new pair of fishnet stockings? For pulling random google finds so eagerly you might have deserved at least that. A good girl you are. Now, go back under the lamppost, dear.

  11. oiaohm says:

    Deaf Spy for meltdown patch for Linux kernel is in the upcoming 4.15 and will be back-ported to the LTS kernels.

    Since the bug affects all platforms, including ARM, the Android folks are especially threatened.
    This is not 100 percent true. So far there has not been any Arm or AMD chips confirmed with a fault like meltdown.

    https://liliputing.com/2018/01/intel-amd-arm-weigh-spectre-meltdown-security-vulnerabilities-discovered-googles-project-zero.html

    Also not all arm chips are effected by spectre either.
    https://developer.arm.com/support/security-update
    This list the effected arm cpu types by spectre not all spectre attacks work.

    https://www.amd.com/en/corporate/speculative-execution
    Yep AMD does not require meltdown work around only requires 1 of the 3 spectre attack methods dealt with.

    Deaf Spy the patch set you pointed to for Windows fixs Meltdown not Spectre so only fixes Intel chips and mostly without valid reason reduces performance on non intel chips.

    A percentage of Spectre fixes will be in the 2.15 Linux kernel release. But the fixing for Linux kernel is lighter for Spectre

    Please note KPTI was on the list for 4.16 but has been brought into 2.15 ahead of schedule. Linux kernel development hoped to be give enough time to collect what CPU/MMU combinations in fact required it due to its high performance cost up to 30-50% at times. The set of atom cpus with GPU linux does not support and Windows 10 does not support does not need the KPTI to fix meltdown either and also happens to be highly resistant to Spectre.

    Spectre at worst costs 1.5% in fixed code. Yes Spectre is harder to fix but its overhead cost is way lower. With hardware changes Spectre can be reduced to only 1 form to worry about and that form has basically zero overhead.

    Deaf Spy so its not just when an OS maker has fixed Spectre and Meltdown it when they have fixed it properly so not incorrectly effecting performance on hardware types that cannot have those faults. Yes microsoft first patch incorrectly hammers AMD chips with no flag to correct in that case Linux kernel version does have nopti to turn it off when it wrong to have KPTI enabled because the Linux kernel developers were aware that not everything was in fact effected by the problem. Hello Microsoft you just used a sledge hammer to attempt to drive in a nail.

    There is at least one cpu type not effected by Spectre or Meltdown at this stage that is RISC-V this include the boom form that is speculative that proves that you can implement CPUs without the defects. Now AMD, Intel and ARM have some work ahead of them. AMD has about the lightest workload.

  12. kurkosdr says:

    Btw, the eBil corporation Microsoft is ready with a fix to a rather unpleasant security issue, which affects all OSes

    Funny how the “evil corporation” says long-term support and means it, while all those FOSS-y hippy Silicon Valley companies say long-term support and mean 2-3 years.

    I guess this is just usual Silicon Valley two-face-ness, much like they pretend to be inclusive towards women but organise private sex parties for men with call girls (aka “personal trainers”) that would make the Wolf Of Wall Street proud.
    https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2018/01/brotopia-silicon-valley-secretive-orgiastic-inner-sanctum
    (hint: Even if you don’t feel like reading the whole article, do a page search for “google” and navigate to the second result)
    (note: I have no problem with sex parties for men and call girls, as long as the people participating are honest enough to own it and as long as they don’t pretend their sex parties for men are progressive and inclusive hangouts, which could result into some unfortunate female colleague accidentally attending mistakenly thinking they are)

  13. Deaf Spy says:

    Btw, the eBil corporation Microsoft is ready with a fix to a rather unpleasant security issue, which affects all OSes:
    https://www.windowscentral.com/microsoft-pushing-out-emergency-fix-newly-disclosed-processor-exploit

    Now, two interesting questions. When will Linux kernel get the fix? Most importantly: who and when will get the fix for the non-Windows land? Since the bug affects all platforms, including ARM, the Android folks are especially threatened.

  14. kurkosdr says:

    Do you ever imagine M$ and Apple don’t advertise their nature in their user-agent strings?

    Of course, there are Samsung Smart TVs, LG Smart TVs, Nintendo consoles, J2ME phones, NTT DoCoMo phones, Nokia S30 and S40 phones and Zeus knows what else browsing the net, then there are also people who use anonymizer tools which clear information from the user agent string (or do it themselves manually), and then there are bots with incomplete user agent strings, but I guess we should just consider everything under “unknown” to be Linux despite the fact that the “linux” user agent string is well-known and already accounted for in the stats you provide.

    That’s not funny at all. It’s very sad that folks would let FLOSS languish just because of the licence, and it’s the same licence used by the kernel.

    So, the fact that both Linux and the GNU stack use the same license and yet Google chose to use the former but not the later, doesn’t it tell you something?

    Think of all the problems that would have been solved if Google had used GNU/Linux instead of Android/Linux for their platform.

    Best case scenario they ‘d have a dependency hell in their hands. You know, the kind of problem where a certain app required version 2.5 of glibc but upgrading glibc would break everything else. There is a reason VLC for Android works in Android 2.3 and up. It’s because Google have done their homework (Android Support Library). Meanwhile, you try and find me a distro from 2010 that can install the latest VLC. You are stuck with whatever old version the packagers managed (and had time) to provide in the repos (it’s not a walled garden, honest). In the nasty world of embedded where stuff is hard to upgrade, forcing OS upgrades just to have access to the latest apps is suicidal.

    Worst case scenario Google wouldn’t ship a product on time just like Nokia.

    We’d have ARMed desktops all over the place

    Nobody cares.

    as well as smartphones that could be updated forever.

    Yeah, a GNU userland would magically fix Qualcomm’s custom kernel which doesn’t get updated after 24 months. Magic…

  15. Deaf Spy says:

    Think of all the problems that would have been solved if Google had used GNU/Linux instead of Android/Linux for their platform. We’d have ARMed desktops all over the place as well as smartphones that could be updated forever.

    Bwa-ha-ha-ha
    This is an open confession that community is good for nothing and totally incapable to create a solid, stable operating system with a full stack for a desktop: kernel, video, audio, windows manager, input and output.

    Again, you want someone else (a big evil corporation) to do the job for you so that people like you get it for free.

    Sorry, Robert, there is no free lunch.

  16. Deaf Spy says:

    Do you ever imagine M$ and Apple don’t advertise their nature in their user-agent strings?

    And how is this a proof to your claim? Maybe that Linux is sometimes incapable of properly presenting itself?

    Android/Linux is the leader …

    There is no such thing as “Android/Linux”. It is Android.

    Finally, mobile thingies are not desktops. We speak of desktop, where Windows is king and Apple has its unfailing presence. Linux is just noise on the radar.

  17. Deaf Spy wrote, “Unknown is Linux (which you need to prove)”.

    Do you ever imagine M$ and Apple don’t advertise their nature in their user-agent strings?

    Also, “There is no Linux on mobile.”

    Android/Linux is the leader with billions of units in operation and billions sold annually. It’s just about saturated the market.

  18. kurkosdr wrote, “Funny how the only thing that has any commercial value in the whole stack for client users (aka the Linux kernel) is the only thing not managed by the FSF loonies.”

    That’s not funny at all. It’s very sad that folks would let FLOSS languish just because of the licence, and it’s the same licence used by the kernel. Think of all the problems that would have been solved if Google had used GNU/Linux instead of Android/Linux for their platform. We’d have ARMed desktops all over the place as well as smartphones that could be updated forever.

  19. kurkosdr says:

    There is no Linux on mobile.

    Well, there is, it’s the reason why, up until recently, Google couldn’t support Android releases with security fixes for longer than 36 months since release because that was the support duration for the kernel (and kernel security fixes).

    GNU/Linux (and the Desktop Linux stack that runs on top of it) is still a statistically other OS though in the client space. Funny how the only thing that has any commercial value in the whole stack for client users (aka the Linux kernel) is the only thing not managed by the FSF loonies.

  20. Deaf Spy says:

    */Linux in its diversity is approaching 5%.

    Eh, how that? Maybe if you decide that Unknown is Linux (which you need to prove) and consider ChromeOS as Linux, which it is not.
    Out of benevolence, let’s say Linux is approaching 5%. This has been so for last few years, which means there is no actual growth. Windows and MacOS X rule the desktop world.

    There is room to grow and that’s happening.

    No, there is actually no room. The new generation of always-connected ARM PCs will be using Windows. 2-in-1s are killing the tablets, and the only tablets to survive will be iPads. Android tablets will be doomed to the low segment – the toys for kids to watch movies, play games and trash within one year.

    Oh, and don’t forget */Linux in the mobile space.

    There is no Linux on mobile. There is Android and iOS.

  21. Deaf Spy says:

    No. You showed numbers supporting your viewpoint, using European costs for electricity. Do the maths in Manitoba, Canada and don’t forget to include maintenance

    No, Robert. You do the Maths in Manitora, and don’t forget to include maintenance, because I didn’t. I even deliberately used higher than real costs for maintenance.

    Come on, Robert. Prove me how wrong I am for Manitoba.

  22. Kurkosdr says:

    the onus is on kurkosdr to provide a scenario in which Solo doesn’t do well in 2018 but it would be a stretch.

    Nope, you ‘ve made the assertion so the onus is on your anus to prove the Chinese deal is real by providing proper citations and timelines. Allow me to remain sceptical until then.

  23. kurkosdr wrote, “How is something that hasn’t been mass-produced in any significant numbers poised to do well is something only Pog knows.”

    In case you missed it:

    • People who test-drive it like it and many have placed orders.
    • 100K orders have been placed by commercial fleets.
    • There is a deal for a successful Chinese manufacturer to crank out Solos in large numbers beginning this year.
    • The safety certification tests have all passed.
    • EMV has been getting all the bugs out for the last six months.

    So, the onus is on kurkosdr to provide a scenario in which Solo doesn’t do well in 2018 but it would be a stretch.

  24. kurkosdr says:

    I think the Solo EV is poised to do well in 2018, catching this wave.

    How is something that hasn’t been mass-produced in any significant numbers poised to do well is something only Pog knows.

    IPredict(tm) that the Namco Pony 2 (go look it up) will do exceptionally in 2018. It hasn’t been mass-produced in any significant numbers and doesn’t have certification, but I am sure it will happen. Too bad they don’t accept pre-orders (/s)

  25. Deaf Spy wrote, “I showed the numbers. I compared a Ford with a Nissan Leaf.”

    No. You showed numbers supporting your viewpoint, using European costs for electricity. Do the maths in Manitoba, Canada and don’t forget to include maintenance, you know, all those oil-changes, valve-timing issues, broken this that and the other about the engine… Oh, and replacing the engine probably is comparable to replacing the battery…

    Now, repeat your calculations for Solo… Oops! There is no comparable. Solo costs half what your calculations show for Leaf. And my electricity costs ~7 cents per kWh, and Solo gets 160km for 16kWh, 70 cents per 100 km. See the difference?

    I don’t live in Europe. I live in a sparsely populated land abounding with clean running water, and wind and sunshine. Now, I do pity the poor people who neglected to leave Europe behind but they got what they want which is not, apparently, cheap transportation. Canada is blessed so it should be on the forefront of adoption of EVs, not taking up the rear, but it is what it is and our politicians have received the message. Next election, I’m voting GREEN.

  26. Deaf Spy says:

    Deaf Spy needs to do maths.

    I did it. I showed the numbers. I compared a Ford with a Nissan Leaf. Very similar vehicles, with practically equal functionality and feature sets. Seek them out, they are in this very blog of yours.

    Where are your numbers, Robert? Don’t pull wishful thoughts out of thin air.

  27. Grece wrote, “What YOU want, the majority of other people, DO NOT want.”

    Well, most of the people I know do care about unit cost of stuff. Now, consider the unit cost of a person-mile or a seat at a desktop computer. I think I have it figured out. Linux and ARM on more computers than TOOS or Apple’s stuff. Thin clients are very plentiful. Most smartphones are pretty thin. That’s why they don’t need AMD64 to give great service to people by the billions.

  28. FooBar wrote, “The cost of electricity is being held down right now mainly because of beautiful, sustainable, clean, efficient hydrofracturing of natural gas supplies to generate it.”

    Uh, no. It’s held down by the abundance of free energy from Sun. Where I live, no one uses natural gas for generation. Manitoba hydro uses wind and water, both of which are powered by Sun.

    FooBar also wrote, “EV are interesting but mass adoption will only happen when the TOTAL cost of ownership, and TOTAL environmental impact (including manufacture and disposal) becomes advantageous over a conventional vehicle.”

    Well, that’s done then. My total cost of ownership of Solo will be about half the cost of my damned SUV. It would have to always carry two or more just to break even on cost of person-miles. It does that two or three times a year. Two Solos would be cheaper and more flexible.

  29. Deaf Spy wrote, “Robert, you still need to do the math how an EV is cheaper than ICV, all other options equal (class, functionality, accessories).
     
    Seems your prediction will go down the drain to make company to “2015 will be the year of Linux of desktop”.”

    Deaf Spy needs to do maths. Endless oil-changes and repairs to complicated moving parts always exceed replacement of the occasional bearing in rotating machinery. It’s an infinite sum versus a constant, mathematically. The cost of a battery-replacement and a new engine are comparable. The cost of service and energy are hugely in EVs’ favour.

    GNU/Linux is doing fine. It’s approaching two percent according to StatCounter. */Linux in its diversity is approaching 5%. There is room to grow and that’s happening. Oh, and don’t forget */Linux in the mobile space. StatCounter sees that as TOOS down to 36% seen that way. */Linux is way ahead of 1/N as one would expect, all things being equal.

  30. Deaf Spy says:

    Robert, you still need to do the math how an EV is cheaper than ICV, all other options equal (class, functionality, accessories).

    Seems your prediction will go down the drain to make company to “2015 will be the year of Linux of desktop”.

  31. Grece says:

    Sorry Robert, freely proselytizing Jerry’s wet-dream, is not going to make it so. People tend to think for themselves, and not what you tell them too.

  32. Grece wrote, “when you’ve got what you have today, like -20 C in temperature, then you will see a drop in your battery range as much as 30, 40 per cent in range, electric vehicles will not be a viable option.”

    Of course Solo remains viable. There are many days I don’t drive more than 60 miles. Many relatives and points of interest are within 15 miles. OTOH, it’s silly to warm up hundreds of pounds of engine to buy stuff at the nearby grocery. ICEd vehicles are extremely inefficient for short trips in cold, even more inefficient than just pumping hot pollution into the air.

  33. EV are interesting but mass adoption will only happen when the TOTAL cost of ownership, and TOTAL environmental impact (including manufacture and disposal) becomes advantageous over a conventional vehicle.

    The cost of electricity is being held down right now mainly because of beautiful, sustainable, clean, efficient hydrofracturing of natural gas supplies to generate it. At that point, though, why not just fuel the cars directly from natural gas? What we *really* need is more nuclear energy.

  34. Grece says:

    We are several times less in adoption even compared to USA

    Here is a clue Robert. What YOU want, the majority of other people, DO NOT want. This trickles down also to Linux, Arm, thin clients.

  35. Grece says:

    With the oncoming mini ice-age Robert, the really significant impact is when you’ve got what you have today, like -20 C in temperature, then you will see a drop in your battery range as much as 30, 40 per cent in range, electric vehicles will not be a viable option.

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